Development of CCD and EM-CCD technology for high resolution X-ray spectrometry
J. Tutt, 2012, "Development of CCD and EM-CCD technology for high resolution X-ray spectrometry", PhD Thesis, The Open University, UK
This thesis discusses the development of Charge-Couple Device (CCD) and Electron Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) technology for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Of particular interest is the spectral resolution performance of the devices alongside the optimisation of the quantum efficiency through the use of back-illuminated CCDs, thin filter technology and improved passivation techniques. The early chapters (1 through 5) focus on the background and theory that is required to understand the purpose of the work in this thesis and how semiconductors can be used as the detector of high resolution X-ray spectrometers. Chapter 6 focuses on the soft X-ray performance of three different types of conventional CCD using the PTB beamline at BESSY II. The results show that there is degradation in spectral resolution in all three devices below 500 eV due to incomplete charge collection and X-ray peak asymmetry. The Hamamatsu device is shown to degrade faster than the CCD30-11 variants and this is attributed to the thickness of the active silicon (>50 μm) in the device and also its thicker dead-layer (~75 nm) which is found by evaluating the device’s soft X-ray QE). The charge loss at the back-surface generation/recombination centres is also investigated and is found to be higher in the Hamamatsu device, again due to its thicker dead-layer. Chapter 7 is an investigation of the Modified Fano Factor which aims to describe the spectral resolution degradation that is expected when an EM‑CCD is used to directly detect soft X-rays. The factor is predicted analytically, modelled and then verified experimentally allowing EM-CCD performance over the soft X-ray range to be predicted with high levels of confidence. Chapter 8 is a detailed look into work completed for the phase 0 study of the off plane X-ray grating spectrometer on the International X-ray Observatory. The work includes a detailed contamination study, effective area analysis, the pointing knowledge requirement and the use of filters to minimise optical background.